Desalination and Wastewater Reuse as Technological Alternatives in an Arid, Tourism Booming Region of Mexico

Desalination and Wastewater Reuse as Technological Alternatives in an Arid, Tourism Booming Region of Mexico

Alberto Pombo, Aurora Breceda, Alva Valdez Aragón

Idioma original

Resumen

 Los Cabos, Baja California Sur, is one of Mexico's most popular tourist destinations. With 25% of the state's population, it has one of the highest population growth rates in the country mostly due to large-scale tourism development. Economic and population growth mean greater water consumption. The region's main water source is the San José aquifer is overexploited. Private desalinization plants as well as wastewater reclamation plants are becoming important alternative technologies for water management at resort hotels. The projections for population growth and water consumption in the region are alarming. Clearly, there is an urgent need to design renewable resources management strategies, diversify technological alternatives, and design public policies to face the challenges of the future.

RESUMEN

Los Cabos, Baja California Sur, es uno de los destinos turísticos más populares de México. Alberga 25% de la población del estado y presenta uno de los mayores índices de crecimiento demográfico del país, debido principalmente al desarrollo turístico de gran escala. El desarrollo económico y demográfico demanda un mayor consumo de agua, cuya principal fuente de abastecimiento de la región, el acuífero de San José, se encuentra sobreexplotado. La utilización de plantas desaladoras de agua de mar, de propiedad privada, así como de plantas para reúso de aguas negras se ha convertido en un factor fundamental en las estrategias de manejo del agua de los desarrollos hoteleros. No obstante, dadas las alarmantes proyecciones de crecimiento poblacional y de consumo de agua en la región, resulta imperioso desarrollar nuevas estrategias de manejo de los recursos, diversificar las alternativas tecnológicas y diseñar nuevas políticas públicas para enfrentar los desafíos regionales.

Palabras clave: desalinization; wastewater reuse; population growth; tourism; Baja California Sur


Abstract

 Los Cabos, Baja California Sur, is one of Mexico's most popular tourist destinations. With 25% of the state's population, it has one of the highest population growth rates in the country mostly due to large-scale tourism development. Economic and population growth mean greater water consumption. The region's main water source is the San José aquifer is overexploited. Private desalinization plants as well as wastewater reclamation plants are becoming important alternative technologies for water management at resort hotels. The projections for population growth and water consumption in the region are alarming. Clearly, there is an urgent need to design renewable resources management strategies, diversify technological alternatives, and design public policies to face the challenges of the future.

RESUMEN

Los Cabos, Baja California Sur, es uno de los destinos turísticos más populares de México. Alberga 25% de la población del estado y presenta uno de los mayores índices de crecimiento demográfico del país, debido principalmente al desarrollo turístico de gran escala. El desarrollo económico y demográfico demanda un mayor consumo de agua, cuya principal fuente de abastecimiento de la región, el acuífero de San José, se encuentra sobreexplotado. La utilización de plantas desaladoras de agua de mar, de propiedad privada, así como de plantas para reúso de aguas negras se ha convertido en un factor fundamental en las estrategias de manejo del agua de los desarrollos hoteleros. No obstante, dadas las alarmantes proyecciones de crecimiento poblacional y de consumo de agua en la región, resulta imperioso desarrollar nuevas estrategias de manejo de los recursos, diversificar las alternativas tecnológicas y diseñar nuevas políticas públicas para enfrentar los desafíos regionales.

Keywords: desalination; wastewater reuse; population growth; tourism; Baja California Sur


Texto completo:

Idioma original


Referencias

Araus, J. L., 2004, “The Problems of Sustainable Water Use in the Mediterranean and Research Requirements for Agriculture,” Annals of Applied Biology, 144:259-172.

Asano, Takashi, and Audrey Levine, 1998, “Wastewater Reclamation, Recycling, and Reuse: An Introduction,” in Water Reclamation and Reuse, edited by Takashi Asano, 1-56. Water Quality Management Library, vol. 10, Lancaster, PA, Technomic Publishing Company.

Bahri, Akissa, 1998, “Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse in Tunisia,” in Water Reclamation and Reuse, edited by Takashi Asano, 877-916. Water Quality Management Library, vol. 10. Lancaster, PA, Technomic Publishing Company.

Boutkan E., Stikker A., 2004, “Enhanced Water Resource Base for Sustainable Integrated Water Resource Management,” Natural Resources Forum, 28:150-154.

CMMA (Canadian Ministry of Municipal Affairs), 1999, Public Private Partnership: A Guide for Local Government. Available at http://www.cserv.gov.bc.ca/lgd/policy_research/library/public_private_partnerships.pdf.

CNA (Comisión Nacional del Agua), 1996, Programa hidráulico estatal, 1996, La Paz, CNA, Gerencia Estatal de B. C. S.

_________, 1999, Balance hidráulico. Internal Monograph, La Paz, CNA, Gerencia Estatal de B. C. S.

________, 2004, Balance hidráulico, Internal Monograph, La Paz, CNA, Gerencia Estatal de B. C. S.

_______, 2005, Información proporcionada por la gerencia. La Paz, CNA, Gerencia Estatal de B. C. S.

Conabio (Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad), 1998, “La diversidad biológica de México: Estudio de país,” Mexico City, Conabio.

Domroes, Manfred, 2001, “Conceptualising State-Controlled Resort Islands for an Environment-Friendly Development of Tourism: The Maldivian Experience,” Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 22 (2):122-137.

Einav, Rachel, Kobi Harussib, and Dan Perry, 2002, “The Footprint of the Desalination Processes on the Environment,” Desalination, 152: 141-154.

Imam, Khalid Zakaria El Adli, and Bashandy, Souaad Hasaneen, 2003, “Globalization vs. Sustainable Tourism: An Approach to Planning Tourism Destinations in Coastal Areas,” 39th ISoCaRP Congress 2003.

García, Enriqueta, 1973, Modificaciones al sistema de clasificación climática de Koeppen (para adaptarlo a las condiciones de la república mexicana), 2d ed., Mexico City,

UNAM, Instituto de Geografía.

Garcia, Celso, and Jaume Servera, 2003, “Impacts of Tourism Development on Water Demand and Beach Degradation on the Island of Mallorca (Spain),” Geografiska Annaler, 85 A (3-4):287-330.

Goh, Kim Chuan, 2003, “Hydrological Studies and Water Resource Concerns in Southeast Asia,” Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 24 (1):86-110.

Haddad, Brent M., 2000, “Economic Incentives for Water Conservation on the Monterrey Peninsula: The Marked Proposal,” Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 36 (1):1-15.

Hardin, Garrett, 1968, “The Tragedy of the Commons,” Science (new series), 162 (3859):1243-1248.

_________, 1985, Filters Against Folly: How to Survive Despite Ecologists, Economists, and the Merely Eloquent, New York, Viking Penguin.

INEGI, 2001, XII Censo general de población y vivienda 2000, Digital Format.

IOA (Institute of the Americas), 2005, “Relatoría del Taller Financiamiento de Proyectos de Agua Potable, Saneamiento y Otra Infraestructura Crítica en Baja California Sur.” Accessed in July 2007 at http://www.iamericas.org/pdfs/Presentations/Relatoria-La%20Paz.pdf.

Khair, K., F. Haddad, and S. Fattouh, 1992, “The Effects of Overexploitation of Coastal Aquifers in Lebanon, with Special Reference to Saline Intrusion,” Hydrogeology, 3:349-362.

Loaiciga, Hugo A., and Renehan Stephen, 1977, “Municipal Water Use and Water Rates Driven by Severe Drought: A Case Study,” Journal of The American Water Resources Association, 33 (6):1313-1326.

Marecos do Monte, Maria Elena, 1998, “Agricultural Irrigation with Treated Wastewater in Portugal,” in Water Reclamation and Reuse, edited by Takashi Asano, 827-876, Water Quality Management Library, vol. 10, Lancaster, PA, Technomic Publishing Company.

McEwen, Brock, 1998, “Indirect Potable Reuse of Reclaimed Water,” in Water Reclamation and Reuse, edited by Takashi Asano, 1211-1268, Water Quality Management Library, vol. 10, Lancaster, PA, Technomic Publishing Company.

Mills, Richard, and Asano Takashi, 1998, “Planning and Analysis of Water Reuse Projects,” in Water Reclamation and Reuse, edited by Takashi Asano, 57-112, Water Quality Management Library, vol. 10, Lancaster, PA, Technomic Publishing Company.

Mills, W., S. M. Bradford, M. Rigby, M. P. Wehner, 1998, “Groundwater Recharge at the Orange County Water District,” in Water Reclamation and Reuse, edited by Takashi Asano, 1105-1142, Water Quality Management Library, vol. 10, Lancaster, PA, Technomic Publishing Company.

Municipio de Los Cabos, 1999, Plan director del desarrollo urbano del municipio de Los Cabos, B. C. S., La Paz, B. C. S., Municipio de Los Cabos.

NCPPP (National Council for Public-Private Partnership), 2007. Available at http://ncppp.org/.

Nativ, Ronit, 2004, “Can the Desert Bloom? Lessons Learned from the Israeli Case,” Ground Water, 42 (5):651-657.

Nurse, Leonard, and Moore Rawleston, 2005, “Adaptation to Global Climate Change: An Urgent Requirement for Small Island Developing States,” RECIEL, 14 (2):100-107.

Ochoa, Felipe, 2005, “Esquema de desarrollo urbano turístico de Los Cabos, estado de B. C. S.,” report, final review version, Los Cabos, June 2005.

Study prepared by Felipe Ochoa and Associates, Los Cabos, B. C. S.

Ogunbiyi, Constantine, 2004, “PPPs: Fad or Good for SADC?” SADC PPP Pathway, SADC Banking Association PPP Capacity Building Programme, Newsletter num. 1, July.

Orange County Water District, 2007, “Water Factory 21.” Available at http://www.ocwd.com/_html/wf21.htm#Anchor-WF21Overview-49575.

Oron, Gideon, 1998, “Water Resource Management and Wastewater Reuse for Agriculture in Israel,” in Water Reclamation and Reuse, edited by Takashi Asano, 757-778, Water Quality Management Library, vol. 10, Lancaster,

PA, Technomic Publishing Company.

Ouyahia, Meriem Aït, 2006, Public-Private Partnerships for Funding Municipal Drinking Water Infrastructure: What are the Challenges? Discussion Paper. PRI Project. PH4-35/2006E-PDF. Available at http://policyresearch.gc.ca/doclib/DP_SD_PPP_200605_e.pdf.

Panayotou, Theodore, 1993, Green Markets: The Economics of Sustainable Development, San Francisco, CA, Institute for Contemporary Studies Press.

Postel, S., 1993, “Facing Water Scarcity,” in State of the World 1993, a Worldwatch Institute Report, ed. Lester Brown, chapter 2, New York, W. W. Norton and Company.

PPPUEM (Public Private Partnership for Urban Environmental Management, International Development Research Centre), 2007. Available at http://www.crdi.ca/en/ev-100052-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html.

Renwick, M. E., and S. O. Archibald, 1998, “Demand Side Management Policies for Residential Water Use: Who Bears the Conservation Burden?” Land Economics, 74:343-359.

Rubin, A., and E. Babbie, 1993, Research Methods for Social Work, Pacific Grove, CA, Brooks/Cole.

SAPALC, 1996, Estudio integral de factibilidad técnica, económica y financiera para el mejoramiento de los servicios de agua potable y alcantarillado de Los Cabos. San

José del Cabo, B. C. S., Los Cabos, B. C. S., SAPALC.

Schutt, R. K., 1999, Investigating the Social World: The Process and Practice of Research, 2d ed., Thousand Oaks, CA, Pine Forge Press.

Smith, H. W., 1991, Strategies of Social Research: The Methodological Imagination, New York, Holt Rinehart, and Winston.

Stikker, A., 2002a, “Desalination Improvements Spice Investment Potential,” Sustainable Business Investor-Worldwide, 2:53-55.

______, 2002b, “Desal Technology Can Help Quench the World's Thirst,” Water Policy, 4:47-55.

Tchobanoglous, George, 1991, Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal and Reuse, 3d ed., New York, McGraw-Hill.

UNESCO, 2005, Public-Private Partnership for Service Delivery: Water and Sanitation, E/ECA/CHDCS.3/4, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, April 13, 2005. http://www.uneca.org/chdcs/chdcs3/PPPs_CHDCS_3.pdf.

Valdez Aragón, Alva R., 2006, “Diagnóstico, servicios ambientales y valoración económica del agua en el corredor turístico-urbano de Los Cabos, B. C. S.,” masters thesis, La Paz, B. C. S., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur.

Weber, Max, 1968, Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology, New York, Bedminster Press.

Wegner-Gwidt, Joyce, 1998, “Public Support and Education for Water Reuse,” in Water Reclamation and Reuse, edited by Takashi Asano, 1417-1462, Water Quality Management Library, vol. 10, Lancaster, PA, Technomic Publishing Company.

WHO, 2007, “Desalination for Safe Water Supply: Guidance for the Health and Environmental Aspects Applicable to Desalination,” Public Health and the Environment, World Health Organization, Geneva, WHO/SDE/WSH/07/0? Available at http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/gdwqrevision/

desalination.pdf.

Young, R. E., K. A. Thompson, R. McVicker, R. A. Diamond, M. B. Gingras, D. Ferguson, J. Johannessen, G. K. Herr, and J. J. Parsons, 1998, “IrvineRanch Water District's Reuse Today Meets Tomorrow's Conservation

Needs,” in Water Reclamation and Reuse, edited by Takashi Asano, 941- 1104, Water Quality Management Library, vol. 10, Lancaster, PA, Technomic Publishing Company.





Copyright (c) 2017 Frontera Norte

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinObraDerivada 4.0 Internacional.
EL COLEGIO DE LA FRONTERA NORTE
Todos los contenidos publicados en esta revista se encuentran bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinDerivar 4.0 Internacional.
Licencia de Creative Commons