Challenges for Cleaner Production in International Manufacturing Subcontracting. The Case of the Maquiladora Industry in Northern Mexico

Carlos Montalvo Corral

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Resumen

En el ámbito global, las autoridades nacionales y locales enfrentan nuevas formas de organización industrial que hacen más difícil la regulación ambiental de estas¿ actividades. Después de la última oleada de privatizaciones acompañadas de concentración económica en diversos sectores y de la maduración de la manufactura globalizada, se puede esperar que los organismos encargados de regular la actividad industrial tengan poca independencia y poder para diseñar y aplicar esquemas regulatorios. Éste es particularmente el caso en la promoción de innovación tecnológica encaminada a proteger el medio ambiente. Este artículo argumenta la tesis de que el ciclo de negocios en la industria maquiladora y la carencia de capacidad institucional de las autoridades ambientales regionales son las limitantes estructurales directas en la promoción de la produción limpia en la región fronteriza de Estados Unidos y México.

 


ABSTRACT


National and local authorities worldwide are facing new forms of industrial organization that impede environmental regulation of industrial activities. After the latest waves of public utility privatizations, accompanied by concentration in diverse economic sectors and the maturation of global manufacturing, it is to be expected that regulators might find themselves with little independence or power to design and enforce regulatory schemes. This is particularly true for the promotion of environmental protection through technological innovation in firms. This article argues that business cycles in the maquiladora industry and the institutional capabilities of regional authorities are direct structural constraints that inhibit the promotion of cleaner production in the Mexican-U.S. border region.

Palabras clave: maquiladora; innovación sustentable; política ambiental; subcontratación internacional; México



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