Modelo lingüístico proporcional de la población chicana

Otto Santa Ana A

Idioma original

Resumen

No hay acuerdo sobre qué modelo sociolingüístico resulta adecuado para explicar las variedades lingüísticas utilizadas por los chicanos, en particular sobre las variedades del inglés empleadas por este grupo étnico. El desacuerdo es resultado de distintos presupuestos, a veces equivocados, de los investigadores. Tampoco existe un modelo que represente las proporciones demográficas de las distintas variedades lingüísticas. En este artículo, después de analizar dos modelos, nos apoyamos en uno que contiene criterios lingüísticos y demográficos. Para el efecto, nos servimos de cinco gráficas, cuatro de estados estadunidenses y una de toda la población chicana. Dichas gráficas se fundamentan en principios lingüísticos y sociolingüísticos explícitos y en datos demográficos del censo nacional de 1980.

 


ABSTRACT


An agreement as to which sociolinguistic method is adequate in explaining the linguistic varieties used by Chícanos, particularly in regards to the varieties of English employed by this ethnic group is nonexistent. This disagreement is the result of the different and sometimes wrong assumptions of researchers. A model representing the demographic proportions of the different linguistic varieties is also nonexistent. In this paper, after criticizing the established models, I present a model that contains both linguistic and demographic criteria. 1 also present five charts, of four different American states and one of the whole Chicano population. These charts are founded on explicit linguistic and sociolinguistic principles and demographic data taken from the 1980 national census.

Palabras clave:



Texto completo:

Idioma original


Referencias

Barker, G. C., "Social functions of language in a Mexican-American community", en Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, núm. 22, Tucson, Arizona, University of Arizona Press, 1947 [1972].

Baugh, J., Black street speech: its history, structure and survival, Austin, Texas, University of Texas Press, 1983.

————, "Chicano English: the anguish of definition", en J. Ornstein-Galicia (coord.), Form and function in Chicano English, Malabar, Florida, Krieger Publishing, 1984.

Bentahila, A. y E. E. Davies, "The syntax of Arabic-French code-switching", en Lingua, 59, 1983, pp. 301-330.

Bureau of the Census, The 1980 Census of the population, Texas, p. 45-35; New Mexico, p. 33-20; California, p. 6-51; United States Summary, p. 1-19, Washington, D. C., Department of Commerce, 1983.

Bureau of the Census, The hispanic population in the United States, Current population reports, Population characteristics, Series p-20, nº455, Washington, D. C., Department of Commerce, marzo de 1991.

Di Sciullo, A-M., P. Muysken and Singh, R., "Government and code-mixing", en Journal of Linguistics 22, 1986, pp. 1-24.

Frazer, T. C., "Chicano English and Spanish interference in the Midwestern United States", en American Speech71.1, 1996, pp. 72-85.

Edelsky, C., S. Hudelson, B. Flores, F. Barkin y B. Altwerger, "Semilingualism and language deficit", en Applied Linguistics 4.1, 1983, pp. 1-22.

García, J. y P.A. Montgomery, The hispanic population in the United States: March 1991, Current population reports, Population characteristics, Series p-20, nº 455, 1990, Bureau of the Census, Washington, D. C., Department of Commerce.

González, G, "The range of Chicano English", en J. Ornstein-Galicia (coord.), Form and function in Chicano English, Malabar, Florida, Krieger Publishing, 1984.

———— , "Chicano English", en D. J. Bixler-Márquez y J. Ornstein-Galicia (coords.), Chicano speech in the bilingual classroom, Nueva York, Peter Lang Publishers, 1984.

Hernández-Chávez, E., A. Cohen y A. Beltramo (coords.), El lenguaje de los chicanos, Arlington, Virginia, Center for Applied Linguistics, 1975.

Massey, D., R. Alarcón, J. Durand y H. González, Return to Aztlan: the social process of international migration from western Mexico, Berkeley, California, University of California Press, 1987.

Mathews, J., "The Escalante equation", Los Angeles Times Magazine, 27 de noviembre de 1988.

Ornstein-Galicia, J., "Mexican-American sociolinguistics: a well-kept scholarly and public secret", en B. Hoffer y J. Ornstein (coords.), Sociolinguistics in the Southwest, San Antonio, Texas, Trinity University, 1974.

———— (coord.), Form and function in Chicano English, Malabar, Florida, Krieger Publishing, 1984.

Penfield, J., "The vernacular base of literacy development in Chicano English", en J. Ornstein-Galicia (coord.), Form and function in Chicano English, Malabar, Florida, Krieger Publishing, 1984.

———— y J. Ornstein-Galicia, Chicano English: an ethnic contact dialect, Varieties of English around the world series, nº 7, Filadelfia, Pensilvania, John Benjamins Publishers, 1985.

Poplack, S., "Sometimes I'll start a sentence in Spanish y termino en español: toward a typology of code-switching", en Linguistics18, 1980, pp. 581-618.

Sánchez, R., "Nuestra circunstancia lingüística", en El Grito 6.1, 1972, pp. 45-74.

Sánchez, R., Chicano discourse: socio-historical perspectives, Rowley, Massachusetts, Newbury House Publishers, 1983.

Santa Ana A., 0. (1991), Phonetic simplification processes in the English of the barrio: a cross-generational sociolinguistic study of the Chicanos of Los Angeles, tesis de doctorado para la Universidad de Pensilvania, 1983.

————, "Toward an adequate characterization of the Chicano Language Setting", informe núm. 122 de The Center for Regional Studies, Albuquerque, Nuevo México, Universidad de Nuevo México, 1992.

————, "The nature of the Chicano Language Setting and definition of Chicano English", en Hispanic Journal of' the Behavioral Sciences15.1, 1993, pp. 3-35.

Sawyer, J. B., "Aloofness from Spanish influence in Texas English", en Word 15, 1959, pp. 270-81.

————, "Social aspects of bilingualism in San Antonio, Texas", en Publications of the American Dialect Society, núm. 41, 1964, pp. 7-15, reimpreso en R. W. Bailey y J. L. Robinson (coords.), Varieties of present-day English, Nueva York, Macmillan, 1973.

————, "Spanish-English bilingualism in San Antonio, Texas", en G. G. Gilbert (coord.), Texas studies in bilingualism: Spanish, French, German, (zech, Polish, Serbian and Norwegian in the Southwest, Berlin, Walter de Gruyter, 1970, pp. 18-41, reimpreso en E. Hernández-Chávez et a1. (coord.), 1975.

Selinker, L., "Interlanguage", en International Review of Applied Linguistics, 10, 1972, pp. 209-231.

Wald, B., "The process of unmerger in bilingual phonology: the case of the voiceless palatals in the English of Mexican-Americans in Los Angeles", en D. Sankoff y H. Cedergren (coords.), Variation omnibus, Carbondale, Illinois, Linguistic Research, Inc., 1981.

Webb, J. T., "Investigation problems in Southwest Spanish Caló", en G. D. Bills (coord.), Southwest areal linguistics, San Diego, California, Institute for Cultural Pluralism, School of Education, San Diego State University, 1974.

Woo, E., "Inner-city schools: a latin flavor", en Los Angeles Times, 25 de junio de 1987.





Copyright (c) 2017 Frontera Norte

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinObraDerivada 4.0 Internacional.
EL COLEGIO DE LA FRONTERA NORTE
Todos los contenidos publicados en esta revista se encuentran bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinDerivar 4.0 Internacional.
Licencia de Creative Commons