Enterprise and labor markets: the border and the metropolitan areas

Bryan Roberts

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Resumen

Abstract

Utilizando datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Empleo Urbano de 1986/87, el autor compara los mercados de trabajo en cuatro ciudades fronterizas (Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez. Nuevo Laredo y Matamoros) con los mercados respectivos en tres ciudades del interior del país, (la ciudad de México, Guadalajara y Monterrey). Se examinan las características e ingresos de cuatro clases de trabajadores: empresarios de pequeña escala (con menos de 50 empleados); trabajadores por cuenta propia; trabajadores en pequeñas empresas, y trabajadores en grandes empresas. El análisis pone a prueba la siguiente hipótesis: que el sector de pequeña escala ofrece ingresos superiores en relación al empleo para sus miembros en la frontera en comparación a las ciudades del interior, especialmente para aquellos que trabajan por cuenta propia. A través de regresiones logísticas se identifican las características sobresalientes de las distintas clasificaciones de trabajadores. Al interior del país, los empresarios de pequeña escala tienden a ser hombres casados con pequeñas familias, con una amplia experiencia laboral en trabajo artesanal y con bajos niveles educativos. Esto se contrasta con la situación fronteriza, donde los empresarios tendían a cumplir ocupaciones profesionales y técnicas, y haber alcanzado niveles más altos de educación, y éstos varían entre la frontera y las principales ciudades.

 


ABSTRACT


Data from the Encuesta Nacional de Empleo Urbano of 1986 /7 are used to compare labor markets in four border cities (Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, Nuevo Laredo, and Matamoros) with those of the three principal cities of Mexico (Mexico City, Guadalajara, and Monterrey). The characteristics and incomes of four classes of workers are examined: small-scale entrepreneurs (those owning firms of less than 50 workers), the self -employed, workers in small-scale enterprises, and workers in large-scale enterprises. The hypotheses are tested that the small-scale sector offers higher incomes relative to employment to all its members on the border as compared to the three principal cities, particularly for the self-employed. Logistic regressions were used to determine the salient characteristics of the different classes of worker. In the principal cities, small-scale entrepreneurs were more likely to be found amongst married males in small families, with long work experience in craft occupations, and with low levels of education. In contrast, on the border, entrepreneurs were more likely to be found amongst those with professional and technical occupations and to have higher levels of education. Migration status had effects on the probability of being in particular job statuses and these varied between the Border and the Principal Cities.

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