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Three lessons for Mexico from canadian-american relations

Gordon T. Stewart

Idioma original

Resumen

En el curso del Siglo XX, empezando con la Primera Guerra Mundial, Canadá ha llegado a vincularse con Estados Unidos de muchas maneras. Estos vínculos han contribuido a la prosperidad canadiense y a un nivel de vida relativamente alto por todo Norteamérica. A pesar del movimiento nacionalista en Canadá de habla inglesa. en las décadas de 1960 y 1970. la integración económica con Estados Unidos progresó culminando en 1988 en con Acuerdo de Libre Comercio. Este artículo argumenta que. aunque Canadá se ha beneficiado en general de estos lazos económicos bastante estrechos, también hubo impactos negativos. Primero, por su fuerte interés en aumentar comercio con Estados Unidos en los años 1930, 1940 y 1950. los formuladores de política canadienses tendieron a menospreciar las angustias nacionalistas canadienses, y por eso los formuladores de política estadounidense también acabaron menospreciando estos mismos intereses nacionalistas y sus implicaciones e importancia en la relación bilateral. El segundo punto es que la manera en que la integración económica procedió conjuntamente con lazos más estrechos en consideraciones militares hizo más difícil para Canadá desarrollar una política exterior libre de influencias estadounidenses. Tercero. el caso canadiense advierte que. a pesar de acuerdos entre gobiernos, siempre habrá camarillas de cabilderos a nivel regional o sectorial que buscarán la manera de orientar varios aspectos de los acuerdos generales a su propio beneficio. Se recomienda que los formuladores de política externa y de comercio exterior sean cuidadosos respecto a los acomodos racionales a la agenda nacionalista mexicana, y que se protejan contra enmiendas posteriores impuestas por intereses estadounidenses.



ABSTRACT

n the course of the twentieth century, beginning with World War I, Canada has become closely tied to the United States in a variety of ways. These links contributed to Canadian prosperity and a sharing of the comparatively high North American standard of living. In spite of the nationalist reaction in English Canada in the 1960's and 1970's the economic integration has continued and culminated in the 1988 Free Trade Agreement. This article argues that while Canada generally benefited from closer economic ties there were negative aspects. First. in the haste to build up trade with the U.S. in the 1930's, 1940's, and 1950's. Canadian policymakers tended to downplay Canadian nationalist concerns and thus made it easy for U.S. policymakers to underestimate the nationalist issue and its ramifications for the relationship. Second, the way in which economic integration went ahead side-by-side with closer military ties made it more difficult for Canada to pursue foreign policies free of U.S. influence. Third, the Canadian case warns us that notwithstanding government to government agreements there will always be powerful political, regional or sectorial lobbies in the U.S. which will seek to shape aspects of the general agreement in their favor. It is suggested Mexican policymakers be careful to keep foreign policy and trade issues distinct, and be aware of later amendments to a general free trade agreement by special interests in the U.S.

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Referencias

Charles M. Pepper and H.C. Davis. "Trade Relations Between Canada, New-founland and Mexico." Bureau of Trade Relations. 23 May 1910, Department of State Decimal File [hereafter DSDF], 1910-1929, Box 5795, Record Group 29 [RG 29], National Archives Washington D.C, [hereafter NA]. Hereafter cited as Pepper Memorandum 1910.

Reginald C. Stuart, U.S. Expansionism and British North America 1775-1871(Chapel Hill, 1988) is a comprehensive and reliable account of this era of expansion and its impact upon Canada.

Theodore Roosevelt to Wilfrid Laurier, 24 December 1908. Theodore Roosevelt Papers, Series 2, Reel 353, Vol. 89.

Pepper Memorandum 1910.

Louis McLane to James Buchanan, London, 1 December 1845, In William R. Manning, Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States. Canadian Relations 1784-1860 (Washington, 1940-1945), Vol. I, p. 986.

The American Economist, 8 November 1889, pp. 299-300; Robin Winks, Canada and the United States. The Civil War Years (Baltimore, 1960).

L. Ethan Ellis, Reciprocity 1911 (New Haven, 1943); Robert Hannigan, "Reciprocity 1911: Continentalism and American Weltpolitik," Diplomatic History, Vol. IV (1980), pp. 1-18.

J.L. Granatstein and R.D. Cuff, Canadian-American Relations in Wartime: from the Great War to the Cold War (Toronto, 1975).

Memorandum by Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs Thorp to Robert Lovett, Washington, 8 March 1948, Foreign Relations of the United States 1948, 9, p. 406.

U.S. Congress, Sen. Ex. Doc. num. 23, 31st. Cong., 2nd. Sess. (1851); Sen. Ex. Doc. num. 112, 32nd. Cong., 1st. Sess. (1852).

Charles H. Pepper to Charles D. Hilles, 19 June 191l. Taft Papers. Vol. 399, c543; Pepper lo W.H. Hoyt, 28 March 1910, DSDF 1910-1929, Box 5774, RG59, NA.

W.Y. Elliot to John D. Hickerson, Cambridge. 27 February 1933; Elliot to President Roosevelt, Berkeley, 2 July 1935, DSDF 1930-1939, Box 3178, Box 3181, RG59, NA.

Pierre De L. Boal to Secretary of State Cordell Hull, Ottawa, 14 June 1935, FRUS 1935, Vol. 2, p.51.

Pierre De L. Boal to John D. Hickerson, Ottawa, 15 April 1933, DSDF 1930-1939, Box 3179, RG 59, NA.

William Phillips Memorandum, Ottawa, 27 March 1929, DSDF 1910-1929, Box 3, RG 59,NA.

William S. Culbertson, Reciprocity: a National Policy for Trade (New York, 1937), p. 93.

James Bryce to Earl Grey, 25 February 1911, FO 800/3334, Public Record Office, London.

Secretary of State James Blaine to President Harrison, 23 September 1891, in Charles Tansill, Canadian-American Relations 1875-1911 (New Haven, 1943), pp. 435-436.

Policy Statement on Canada (Green Booklet), Department of State, 19 March 1951, DSDF 1950-1954, Box 2773, RG 59, NA.

Stanley Woodward to Secretary of State, Ottawa, 13 January 1953, DSDF 1950-1954. Box 2773, RG 59, NA.

Julian Harrington to Secretary of State, Ottawa, 5 July 1949, DSDF 1945-1949, Box 5884, RG 59, NA.

Policy Statement on Canada 1951. op. cit.

J.L. Granatstein, "The Course of Canadian-American Relations since 1945." in Charles F. Doran and John H. Sogler eds., Canada and the U.S. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1985), pp.45-68; Norman Hillmer ed., Partners Nevertheless. Canadian-American Relations in the Twentieth Century (Toronto, 1989) provide reliable commentaries on the relationship and the impact of nationalism in the post-1945 period.

Pierrepont Moffatt to John D. Hickerson, Ottawa, 22 August 1940, Hickerson Papers, Reel 5, NA.

Robert Bothwell, lan Drurmmond and John English, Canada since 1945. Power, Politics and Provincialism (Toronto, 1981), p. 205.

Francis Sayre Memorandum of Meetings at White House with President Roosevelt, Phillips, Grady, Sayre, DSDF 1930-1939, Box 3181, RG 59. NA.

Dean Acheson Testimony to Senate Subcommittee on Seaway Project, U.S. Cong., 80th. Cong., 2nd. Sess., Sen. Rep. #810, p. 76.

Donald Grant Creighton. The Forked Road (Toronto, 1976).

J.L. Granatstein, How Britain's Weakness Forced Canada into the Arms of the United States (Toronto, 1989).

Norman Armour to Secretary of State Hull, Ottawa, 17 October 1935, DSDF 1930-1939, Box 3182, RG 59, NA





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