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Migrants and settlers: a comparison of undocumented Mexican and central americans in the United States

Leo R. Chavez, Estevan T. Flores, Marta López-Garza

Idioma original

Resumen

Abstract

En este trabajo se analiza la información recabada en investigación de campo con el fin de contestar a preguntas tales como: ¿qué semejanzas existen entre mexicanos y centroamericanos en cuanto a su experiencia migratoria? ¿será similar para ambos grupos el proceso de establecimiento en Estados Unidos? ¿qué papel juegan las mujeres en estos procesos?El estudio se realizó en las ciudades de San Diego, California y Dallas, Texas, utilizando el método de muestreo denominado "bola de nieve". Las 296 entrevistas realizadas fueron divididas por igual entre mexicanos y centroamericanos.Entre otros datos las entrevistas revelaron que mientras que los centroamericanos, en forma repetida, identificaron las razones políticas como el motivo por el cual abandonaron su lugar de origen, los mexicanos en su amplia mayoría, fueron motivados por razones de índole económica. Las mujeres de ambos grupos son elementos activos en el proceso migratorio y ellas al igual que los hombres, expusieron sus motivos para emigrar. En el terreno legal, fueron los centroamericanos quienes con mayor frecuencia manifestaron haber sido informados de sus derechos por parte de las autoridades migratorias de Estados Unidos.Al hablar del empleo, la jardinería de ornato para los hombres y el trabajo doméstico para las mujeres, dentro del sector informal, fueron los renglones en los que la amplia mayoría de estos dos grupos se ubicaron.En referencia a la familia, los mexicanos mostraron una mayor tendencia a tener a esposa e hijos en Estados Unidos y expresaron su intención de residir en forma definitiva en ese país. Los centroamericanos a pesar de haber mencionado con frecuencia razones políticas para emigrar, se mostraron menos decididos que los mexicanos a permanecer indefinidamente en aquel país y por lo general, dijeron que el regreso a su tierra dependería de los cambios políticos y económicos que se produjeran en ella.


ABSTRACT

This paper uses empirical data to explore such questions as: How do Mexicans and Central Americans compare in their experience of the migration process? Is the process of settlement in the United States similar for both groups? And, what role do women play in these processes? Central Americans often cite political motives for leaving their homelands. Mexicans, as suspected, were overwhelmingly motivated by economic factors. Both men and women articulated their reasons for leaving home and community, and both Mexican and Central American women were active agents in the migration process. Central Americans were also more likely than Mexicans to have been informed of their legal rights by U.S. authorities. The informal sector, particularly gardening and landscaping for men and household-related labor for women, was an area of employment for large proportions of both groups. Mexicans were more likely than Central Americans to have their spouses and children in the United States and to indicate they intend to stay in the United States permanently. Central Americans, who often gave political reasons for migrating, were less positive than Mexicans that they were going to stay permanently in the United States and more likely to indicate that return depended on political and economic changes in the place of origin. The study was carried out in San Diego, California and Dallas, Texas, using a "snowball" , sampling method. The 296 interviews were evenly divided between Mexicans and Central Americans.

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Idioma original


Referencias

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